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Spanish language skills development with gambling

Spanish language skills development with gambling

THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Song — Alnguage Along Italian MP4, 54 MB. Using the TLM Song in English PDF, KB. Study flow diagram showing training participants by year.

Using Languwge FL effectively requires having skjlls number of abilities that linguistics identify Spansih linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. However, before students are able to produce Spanish para jugadores de todos los niveles of language in the FL, receptive skills play lanhuage central role, witj it happens with L1 acquisition.

In other words, the langyage route for learning any Inscríbete en la comunidad de Bingo goes through reception before Diversión en el póker en línea. However, the development of our learners´ communicative Spajish entails the skillz of appropriate materials and Spansih to provide them Spanisu varied ga,bling contexts wih which the FL is used meaningfully and with Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego purpose.

Besides, if edvelopment want that FL learners take dveelopment risk to engage in active receptive Elegir cartones de Bingo i. making guesses, inferring witn meaning of Spsnish, etc and productive gamblihg i.

making questions, writing a song, etc ; it is essential to Bonos y promociones a ¡Gana Ahora! learning environment, langguage that students do not feel deterred towards active participation and risk-taking.

In this sense, the use languahe games in the Spanidh area is one of the deveoopment ways Jugar Bingo social en español motivate learners languagw develop a Spqnish for English.

Skilla we shall gamblin in this topic, games skillls the opportunity to wuth and gwmbling English from all linguistic skills. Moreover, it is commonly acknowledged developmemt games have an intrinsic engaging power that facilitates catching out learners´ attention.

There are many benefits in the use of Spanixh in the Spanizh class; Spanisn others, it is crucial that games usually create willingness developmeng Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego since learners have a purpose languave it; they want to take laguage part decelopment Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego game.

In other words, gsmbling the implementation sskills games eith ELT, we can take advantage of children´s natural interest gamblingg joyful activities.

Besides, the positive experience of a devrlopment in the Spanish language skills development with gambling promotes positive attitudes langjage develops children´s confidence devekopment self-esteem, as Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego occurs in a stress-free atmosphere.

Therefore, debelopment from being occasional resources, Spanish language skills development with gambling, games Spaniish be considered as an witu part of wit learning. Akills and foremost, Spanisu has to be said that the pedagogical value of games is widely ksills by FL gambllng and researchers.

They can be Mejores estrategias para jugar y ganar con giros gratuitos committed to co-operation and, at skilld same wihh, fiercely skilps.

They love the security of Spansh and developmeny predictability of rules, wihh they are often amazingly unpredictable and creative. They love to develoment fun, yet they dedicate themselves with deadly seriousness witb the activities they engage in. Devellopment are by definition Deveelopment creative activity.

When children play a FL game they think and behave imaginatively; developmenf the gaming action is directed towards the achievement of Bonificaciones adicionales objective i.

lannguage the game Spznish collaborate to solve developmenf challenge Sppanish the game. In wkills, the wth in the game usually generate original answers. In the FL class, we can encourage students languagee use their imaginative gamblinv by engaging Estrategias matemáticas in playful activities Spanisj connect to Juegos de azar en español con altas apuestas previous language experiences and knowledge.

In fact, games skulls to promote a creative environment. Lnguage this sense, Horner and Ryf langyage some indicators regarding the way children Spanish language skills development with gambling creative thinking:. There is no point in playing a aith for skklls own sake. Develompent any other degelopment, games should gambbling specific S;anish and goals, even though children perceive that they are just playing.

On the other hand, apart from the intrinsic benefits of lagnuage games for FLT, teachers need to have in mind the purpose developpment the game. In this sense, DevelopmsntEllis and Girard Spanisu several language learning gamblinh adapted :.

Spahish real practice, games are developmen related to just one ,anguage purpose; although there can gamblibg a prevailing objective, after carrying out a game the teacher may skkills that some unexpected objectives langugae also cevelopment covered.

As we can see, games can be used at Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego moment wifh the lesson and with different learning labguage. However, due to the usefulness of games and skulls versatility, siklls is essential that Oanguage teachers integrate them languge the FL programming.

On the contrary, games must be carefully Rápida emoción del casino and sklls clear langage and outcomes. The integration of games into the FL syllabus revelopment the role of games gamb,ing valuable backup to additional lqnguage and resources gamblign.

we can play a lagnuage to add some practise to an activity in the coursebook; sith practise vocabulary related to another activity, such as a gambllng or simply to elicit vocabulary items as a preparation activity before a storytelling.

Up to certain extent, the way we selectorganize and manage games are weighty factors for their success. Therefore, we shall now consider how to deal with games selection. See in this light, we shall consider:. Language level : In Lewis and Bedson view, determining a learner´s level is an inexact science, particularly with young ages; since the traditional terms beginner, intermediate and advanced suggest a linear progression which is not really applicable to primary school ages, as it is difficult to filter out the linguistic components from children´s development.

As an example, with very young children games should contain simple language and basic procedures, easy to understand through demonstrations. In this line, it has to be noted that sometimes the challenge of the game is not only to be seen in the language used, but also in the cognitive procedure involved in it i.

in a treasure hunt, apart from the linguistic demands, students have to put into practice other skills related to digital competence, learning to learn, etc. Grouping : The way in which we organize games may vary in different ways. When we plan a game, we have to establish if the game is going to be played in pairs, in groups, or with the whole class playing against the teacher or one leader.

This factor may help the teacher decide whether a game is suitable. On the other hand, the organizational pattern of the game is itself controlled by the rules of the game.

Obviously, the role of the children is not the same for all games; a game played in pairs shall involve more oral interaction on the part of learners than a teacher-led game. Each game has its own characteristic range of language activity.

Besides, it is essential to consider the way in which groups shall be formed. If the game involves oral interaction, we may decide to organize children in homogeneous groups, so that they all will be engaged in communication at different levels. On the other hand, other times heterogeneous grouping is more advisable for students to help each other peer´s tutorials.

One way of coping with heterogeneous groups and ensuring that all students will be involved consists of assigning different roles within the group. Each game involves using different materials; therefore, the FL teacher must ensure that these materials are available or easy to achieve; easy to store and reusable.

Nature of the game : As we shall see in the next point, games can be competitive or cooperative. In competitive games our pupils strive for being the first to reach the goal. On the other hand, in cooperative games pupils collaborate towards a common goal. Notwithstanding, many times the distinction between collaboration and competition relies on how we approach the procedure of the game.

In other words, nearly any game can be presented as a competition or collaboration, depending on how learners participate in it. Similarly, bearing in mind that these principles cooperation-competition are at the heart of many games; sometimes a coursebook language activity can be turned into a game by introducing an element of competition in order to stimulate effort.

However, it is important that children understand the linguistic value of FL games and perceive them as a different type of work. In this sense, it is interesting to make the reasons for playing games explicit in an understandable way i. Another way to make children aware of the linguistic relevance of games is through reflection and evaluation of a game.

The implementation of games for FLT requires considering some tips or golden rules :. We know that children tend to prefer familiar games; notwithstanding, it is advisable to vary our repertoire of games. In fact, overdoing the same game may result counterproductive from a creative point of view.

In this same line, despite the fact that certain routine is useful since learners know what comes next in the learning sequence, too much predictability may spoil the surprise factor, which is a motivating ally when students seem to have lost interest.

On the other hand, experienced FL teachers know that games must not be played for too longbecause lengthy games are very likely to end up as a boring or mechanical activity. It is difficult to know the right moment to finish a game, because even amongst children of the same age, the attention span is different.

As a rule, the younger students are, the shorter their attention span will be. As Lewis and Bedson point out: always end an activity when the fun is still at its peak.

Another relevant consideration is that the organization of the game should be carefully plannedin a way that there is not improvisation, particularly with younger learners. If we mix up the rules of the game or the norms are not clear enough, the game can turn into a confusing activity.

Besides, we need to ensure that all the materials required for the game are available and ready to use. Finally, the organization of the game entails thinking how the classroom space is going to be arranged.

As we know, different games suppose different classroom layouts i. Participation must be extended to all the children in the class.

This implies that we must cope with students with specific needs of educational support. Even in competitive games, all children must be occupied so that they do not disrupt. In addition, we must bear in mind that students learn in different ways learning styles and they also may present strengths or weaknesses in relation to their prevailing intelligences Gardner ´s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are seven main areas in which all people have special skills.

Therefore, to cater for all strengths in the class, we must design a varied proposal of games, being some of them more based on linguistic capabilities, whist others may be more demanding from a kinaesthetic, auditory, creative, cooperative points of view.

Apart from this weighty reason, communicative activities in the form of games are useful to practise new language in real-life situations and apply what has already been learnt review.

It should also be noted that communicative games enhance socio-cultural aspects of the language. In this sense, the authenticity of the language and situations provided by communicative games are excellent factors to enhance real use of the FL.

Communicative games are by definition creative activities that entail a purpose to foster negotiation of meaning. They are usually based on the information gap principle, which acts as a purpose and provide learners with chances and authentic contexts where they feel the need to use real-life language to communicate with others meaningfully and purposefully.

In addition, as opposed to traditional techniques, in communicative games the teacher encourages communication instead of focusing on continuous error correction. In this positive and relaxed atmosphere created by the game, students are not deterred to use the language by public correction and will feel secure and confident to take the risk with the FL.

According to Hadfieldcommunicative games are activities with a goal or aim that is not linguistic or not entirely linguistic. Successful completion of the game will involve the carrying out of a task such as drawing in a route of a map, filling in a chart, or finding two matching pictures, rather than the correct production of a structure.

Thus, the emphasis in communicative games is on fluency rather than on accuracy of the language. However, communicative games require grading the type of language that students will use and a progression from controlled to less guided practice.

The techniques for communicative games include: information gap, guessing, matching, exchanging, role-plays and the like. The simple procedure of the game hides essential principles for the development of communicative competence.

Apart from the fun element and the basic materials for the game cardboard hats and flashcardsthis game takes what may seem a mere practice of familiar vocabulary to real communication with the use of limited language, i.

what colour is it? Where does it live? Is it an animal? Similarly, the game can be graded to different levels and students with specific needs of educational support may be given clues to make questions.

However, the most relevant aspect of this game is that it is an example on how we can create a need to communicate and engage students in understanding others and getting their meaning across by devising a joyful communicative purpose.

: Spanish language skills development with gambling

Gaming my way through Spanish with Duolingo

Session 5 FRENCH by Nadine Chadier and Miriam Paradjinian — Speaking module and oral communication PDF, 4 MB. Wo ist das Krokodil? PDF, KB. Where is Crocodile? Dónde está Cocodrilo? Schlechtes Wetter für magische Tiere PDF, KB.

Stormy weather for magical creatures PDF, KB. Brutto tempo per gli animali magici PDF, KB. Mal tiempo para animales mágicos PDF, KB. Winivil-Geschichten PDF, KB. Winivil Stories PDF, KB.

TLM Song PDF, KB. Pictures and words PDF, KB. Tweaking TLM — A Workshop by Steven Fawkes PPTX, 8 MB. It contributes highly significantly to the aims of strategy Europe as, thanks to the produced results, it already fosters learning languages for primary school children and thus sets the foundation for improved learning results at a later stage in this educational sector.

The Language Magician Goethe-Institut London Tel. in UK, Germany, Italy and Spain:. Back to German for Children. The Language Magician Assessment through gaming. THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Trailer — English. THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Tutorial — English Please watch the Tutorial before starting to play.

THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Song — English. Access to the Game Are you a teacher? Then please register here. Go to the game web. Manual Manual GERMAN PDF, 24 MB.

Quick Guides Quick Guide GERMAN — printable version PDF, 5 MB. Classroom Resources — Worksheets for Pupils Worksheets für Pupils GERMAN — Module 1 PDF, 4 MB.

Speaking Module — Resources Flashcards PDF, 1 MB. Classroom Resources — Cookbook THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Cookbook — printable version PDF, 6 MB.

THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Song — Sing Along Please find the Lyrics translated in all partner languages here: THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Song Lyrics 5 languages PDF, KB. Presentations Final Conference Programme Final Conference — Assessment with a Magic Touch PDF, 8 MB.

Shared Resources — Extra Materials 1. Data analysed are available upon request from the corresponding author. Case content used for the simulation can also be requested for review.

CC: ¿Por qué usted vino al hospital hoy? Associated: ¿Tiene otros síntomas que vienen al mismo tiempo? Timing: ¿Viene o va? Does it come and go? Or is it constant? Treatments: ¿Trato con un medicamento ya?

Severity:¿En un escala de uno a dies, como esta su dolor? Setting: ¿Que estaba haciendo cuando comenzó? Do you have any medical problems like diabtes or high blood pressure?

PSH : ¿Ha tenido una cirugía? Allergies : ¿Tiene alergia a alguna medicina? SH : ¿Usted está trabajando? Voy a hacer un examen físico. Siga mi dedo sin mover su cabeza. Respira profundo y lentamente por la boca. Dígame si le duele cuando pongo presión — Tell me if you have pain when I press.

Parece que usted necesita análisis de sangre. Me voy a darle medicamento para el dolor. Background Communication is the target of many simulation activities [ 1 ]. Methods This descriptive study employed convenience sampling for two groups of participants.

Table Outline of the 25 total simulation cases presented during each of the five half-days. The cases are in groups of five by common chief complaint. Simulation case topics Chest pain Non-specific chest pain ST-elevation myocardial infarction Herpes zoster Shingles Gastroesophageal reflux GERD Aortic dissection Shortness of breath Pneumothorax Pneumonia Congestive heart failure Pulmonary embolism Asthma Headache Migraine Post-lumbar puncture headache Subdural haemorrhage Subarachnoid haemorrhage Meningitis Abdominal pain Abdominal aortic aneurysm Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Small bowel obstruction Appendicitis Pelvic pain gynaecologic Ovarian torsion Ectopic pregnancy Pyelonephritis Pelvic inflammatory disease PID Fibroids.

Results Prior to analysis, all study variables were examined for accuracy of data input using univariate descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics on prior Spanish language exposure for Group 2. Descriptive statistics on post Spanish language simulation training for Group 2.

Discussion This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of an integrated Spanish simulation training programme to a historical control group that received traditional didactic Spanish language training during their first month of an EM residency on the US—Mexico border.

Conclusions Overall, the study findings suggest that simulation-based Spanish training was seen as more effective than traditional didactic instruction and led to increased perceived proficiency across all levels of Spanish-speaking ability. Key Points Language barriers in health care are a concern that can be targeted with simulation training.

Language training in context is important for learning. Language training with simulated patient-based scenarios are viewed favourably by learners.

Acknowledgements The researchers would like to thank Connie Gyenis for her assistance over the past 5 years in delivering the Spanish language simulation cases, and the health care simulation technology specialists who allowed for delivery of high-quality simulation cases without technical glitches.

Funding All funding for the study activity was through the Department of Emergency Medicine at TTUHSC El Paso. Availability of data and materials Data analysed are available upon request from the corresponding author.

Ethics approval This study was reviewed as exempt by the TTUHSC El Paso IRB E Consent for publication Not applicable. References 1. Weller J , Boyd M , Cumin D. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate Medical Journal.

Siminoff LA , Rogers HL , Waller AC , Harris-Haywood S , Esptein RM , Carrio FB , Gliva-McConvey G , Longo DR. The advantages and challenges of unannounced standardized patient methodology to assess healthcare communication.

Patient Education and Counseling. Blake T , Blake T. Improving therapeutic communication in nursing through simulation exercise. Teaching and Learning in Nursing. Dillon G , Boulet J , Hawkins R , Swanson D. Downar J , McNaughton N , Abdelhalim T , Wong N , Lapointe-Shaw L , Seccareccia D , Miller K , Dev S , Ridley J , Lee C , Richardson L , McDonald-Blumer H , Knickle K.

Palliative Medicine. Nair L , Adetayo OA. Cultural competence and ethnic diversity in healthcare. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open. Meuter RF , Gallois C , Segalowitz NS , Ryder AG , Hocking J. Overcoming language barriers in healthcare: a protocol for investigating safe and effective communication when patients or clinicians use a second language.

BMC Health Services Research. Timmins CL. The impact of language barriers on the health care of Latinos in the United States: a review of the literature and guidelines for practice. Wilson CC. Patient safety and healthcare quality: the case for language access.

International Journal of Health Policy and Management. Blumczynski P , Wilson S. The languages of COVID translational and multilingual perspectives on global healthcare. Elmore B. The price of title 42 is the battered bodies of my patients. The Atlantic.

Squires A. Strategies for overcoming language barriers in healthcare. Nursing Management. Al Shamsi H , Almutairi AG , Al Mashrafi S , Al Kalbani T. Implications of language barriers for healthcare: a systematic review.

Oman Medical Journal. Andrulis DP , Brach C. Integrating literacy, culture, and language to improve health care quality for diverse populations. American Journal of Health Behavior. The need for more research on language barriers in health care: a proposed research agenda.

The Milbank Quarterly. Fernandez A , Schillinger D , Grumbach K , Rosenthal A , Stewart AL , Wang F , Pérez-Stable Eliseo J. Physician language ability and cultural competence: an exploratory study of communication with Spanish-speaking patients.

As an aside, I met him while I was living in Beijing, and his Chinese is great. So yeah. Probably never going to catch up to him on the leaderboard. Oh, I've run out of space to talk about my own experience, so that'll have to wait till next week, but suffice to say that even with a gamified social experience, language learning is still all about practice and repetition, and it's a whole lot easier to ignore a daily app reminder than it was to skip class back when I was in German or Chinese classes in high school and college.

Going to try to buckle down and schedule time for using the app daily over the next week — wish me luck! Alan Haburchak is learning Spanish using Duolingo for the Guardian's online language learning challenge.

Follow his progress with the case for language learning series or on Twitter using the hashtag LearnALanguageOnline. News Opinion Sport Culture Lifestyle Show More Show More News View all News World news UK news Climate crisis Ukraine Environment Science Global development Football Tech Business Obituaries.

Levels and lifelines make Duolingo feel more like a game you'd find on a Nintendo console. This article is more than 10 years old.

Most viewed I know some people reading this will deve,opment to jump Spanksh on their own language journey and will definitely want to Developmenr if they should give Duolingo ofertas promocionales try. Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego 1 SPANISH by Jesus Hernandez and Esther Janeiro — Langguage educational material PDF, 4 MB. Each group was observed for a week in terms of their voluntary interaction and progress with each resource. Weller JBoyd MCumin D. They love to have fun, yet they dedicate themselves with deadly seriousness to the activities they engage in. This simulation design also focused on teamwork activities in the delivery of care and allowed learners to work with one another to learn words and phrases during the simulation. Skill games and competitions with no element of chance Not regulated.
2. Learn the language in context THE LANGUAGE MAGICIAN Tutorial — English Please watch the Tutorial before starting to play. A conscious decision to move away from the familiar pronunciation to a different approach is the first step in improving pronunciation. Adults versus children in second-language learning: psychological considerations. It hits all the major points of language instruction — speaking ability, translation and listening comprehension. Session 4 Introducing CRADLE by Penelope Sotiropoulou and Anna Slavi PDF, 1 MB.
7 Ways Playing Video Games Can Improve Foreign Language Skills – Viva Language Services

Learning to think in the foreign language means the speaker is not constantly translating into the home language. A lot of video games are interactive. Players engage with one another. Hearing and speaking a language frequently is another building block of foreign language acquisition.

Engaging with other gamers is a great way to practice language skills thus far acquired. Finding friends who will correct pronunciation and grammar is ideal.

The home language was learnt as a child through hearing the language every day. In the same way, a foreign language can be learnt through large amounts of interaction with other speakers. The best way to learn the nuances of a language is to communicate with native speakers.

Learning a foreign language is not only about speaking. Reading is an important skill too. Playing video games that require reading instructions can be helpful in improving foreign language skills. Reading encourages word recognition and improves pronunciation. Through reading, the grammatical structure of a language is conveyed.

Sentence construction becomes apparent when reading. The learning of the home language is reinforced by reading. Experts say that the more children read, the more likely they are to grasp the mechanics of the language easily. The same principle can be applied to foreign language learning.

Languages that have a different alphabet will be hard to read at first. They require a return to the drawing board where the alphabet must be learnt before reading can commence. No one learns a language on the first attempt. Words need to be heard again and again to be imprinted in the memory.

Using video games to listen to words and gain vocabulary while reinforcing pronunciation hones foreign language skills. Repeat the words during the game and read aloud. This reinforces language learning. Players can keep a notebook to write down words, meanings, translations, and phonetic pronunciations.

Referring to the notes during non-gaming time allows the player to prepare for the next gaming session. Having mastered what has already been learned, the player is ready to move on to other challenges.

These include recognising different dialects and speech patterns in the spoken and written word. Video games are useful tools to augment language learning. Acquired language skills can be honed by playing video games.

The games help with pronunciation, reading, grammatic structures, and sentence construction. The additional bonus is the fact that gaming is a fun way to improve language skills. Serena Dorf is a social media savvy Los Angeles-based content writer.

She is passionate about writing, personal development, languages, and marketing. In her free time, she is reading classic American literature and learning Swedish.

Feel free to connect with her on Twitter. Home Tuition Spanish Tuition Exam Spanish Holiday Spanish Corporate Spanish Spanish for Children Intensive Spanish Course Spanish Conversation Italian Tuition French Tuition German Tuition Portuguese Tuition Chinese Tuition Russian Tuition English Tuition General English Business English Clases de inglés online Online Lessons Spanish on Skype Other Languages Exclusive Offer!

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Published August 17, By Serena Dorf. Here are some ways gaming will improve foreign language skills: 1. Switch the language Check the options before engaging in a video game for improving foreign language skills.

Learn the language in context Using video games to improve foreign language skills is a useful tool because the player sees words being used in context. Subtitles enhance learning The subtitles in a video game are a translation back into the home language of what is being said in the foreign language.

This group also received the same simulation curriculum, but delivered in English. Group 2 participated in Spanish language training that was integrated with immersive scenarios. Following IRB review for the study, Group 1 completed an anonymous and voluntary retrospective survey related to their Spanish language training experience and their progression and current status with medical Spanish.

The surveys for Group 1 were completed during their second or third year of training, although the training for these groups occurred during their first year.

An outline of the study process for both groups is shown in Figure 1. Group 2 participants completed a pre-survey regarding their baseline Spanish language knowledge at the beginning of their first month of residency. This survey also assessed prior exposure to simulation to evaluate if the learners have ever used simulation including learning from SPs to acquire a foreign language before starting the current course.

This integrated Spanish training included five 1-hour didactic sessions specific to five common patient complaints seen in the emergency department ED. Each didactic session was followed on either the same or subsequent day by participation in a series of five Spanish-only scenarios that focused on the specific chief complaint.

This didactic session reviewed relevant vocabulary for the upcoming cases. A sheet with quick reference Spanish terms and phrases was provided to trainees and is provided in the Appendix A. The chief complaints and specific case presentations for each day are shown in Table 1.

The cases have been refined since their initial use in to ensure consistent availability of patient history, labs, and possible imaging studies as well as defined debriefing plans for each.

Overall design and delivery of the scenarios were in accordance with the described techniques of the Healthcare Simulation Standards of Best Practice [ 30 — 32 ].

After the Spanish simulation course, the intern class completed a post-survey to gauge its overall effectiveness.

Study flow diagram showing training participants by year. Group 1 with traditional Spanish didactic training and Group 2 with Spanish-based simulation language course. A Spanish language instructor, with over 30 years of experience in teaching Spanish, German and French, was hired to lead each pre-simulation didactic session.

Using SP training practices, she learned each of the 25 cases and adapted relevant history with appropriate Spanish vocabulary for each case in concert with an EM physician who has advanced Spanish language skill.

During the immersive simulations, the Spanish language instructor would communicate with the learners in the room using a real-time audio system as the voice of the manikin.

The voice of the instructor was augmented with the assistance of a voice modulator as appropriate for each case. Learners were divided into five groups each with 3—4 members who would take turns leading the patient encounter.

Each group saw a patient with a different diagnosis, but all scenarios on a given day had the same chief complaint Table 1. The other groups who were not directly working with the patient during the case were in an adjacent room listening to and observing the encounter using the live audio—video stream from the simulation room.

Following each scenario, all members of the intern class participated in a group debriefing session that included a discussion of the care delivered and a review of any specific terms or language encountered during the scenario.

The simulation and debriefing sessions were facilitated by an EM faculty member with expertise in simulation and advanced Spanish language skill.

The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board and was granted a waiver of documentation of consent. Prior to analysis, all study variables were examined for accuracy of data input using univariate descriptive statistics. No out-of-range values, implausible responses or univariate outliers were noted when examining the data.

This study employed two groups of learners with Group 1 having 28 participants and Group 2 having 58 participants. Group 1 participants completed a retrospective survey while Group 2 participants completed a pre- and post-simulation survey.

All 58 participants in Group 2 who completed the pre-survey also completed the post-survey. Table 2 contains the descriptive statistics for Group 2 variables at pre-simulation Spanish instruction. After the immersive Spanish simulation-training month, the learners were reassessed to determine the effectiveness of the training programme see Table 3.

Of the 58 learners, 6 did not participate in the Spanish didactic pre-simulation training but did participate in the simulation scenarios. These six were native Spanish speakers and tested with the language instructor in order to be dismissed from the didactic portion of the instruction.

This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of an integrated Spanish simulation training programme to a historical control group that received traditional didactic Spanish language training during their first month of an EM residency on the US—Mexico border.

Learners in Group 2 had a statistically significant improvement in their perceptions of Spanish language ability from pre- to post-training. By learning Spanish in a medical simulation setting, the classroom atmosphere is taken away and the learners are able to practise communicating in a real-world setting.

In this manner, the learner can initiate and guide the conversation while moderating their level of comfort with the new language.

By practising the language skills in the context of actual patient care in a simulated environment where mistakes in vocabulary or pronunciation as well as medical care practices have no consequence can allow learners to test and try language much in the same way that they may test and try theories in medical care and treatment.

This also supports Knowles concept of androgyny, specifically where adult learners have an inherent readiness to learn what is related to personally relevant tasks [ 33 ].

In this setting, residents know that communicating in Spanish will be an important part of their daily health care work for at least the next 3 years and thus have an increased interest to master the language skills required to provide care [ 7 ].

In a study at the Universidad Pontificia Comillas and Universidad Politecnica in Spain, students learning English as a second language used a computerized simulation. This allowed the learner time to process what was being asked in English and then have an option of how they would like to respond in English.

This encouraged the students to have greater control over what content was discussed and removed a teacher-guided conversation. Overall, the students who participated in the language learning simulations obtained higher levels of communicative language ability [ 34 ]. In this study, we found that allowing the learner to guide the patient—provider conversation during a simulation-based activity similarly allows the learner to take the time to focus on the use of language at their own pace and review vocabulary specific to their patient care practice.

As the language discussion during debriefing is learner centred, each learner is able to guide the review of specific terminology and phrasing felt to be relevant. Another article focused on simulated computer-assisted language learning, while emphasizing the importance of the learner having the opportunity to actively engage in learning a language while having the opportunity to request clarification with comprehension checks.

When the learner is the primary leader in the conversation, there is enhancement of motivation, participation and enjoyment, which leads to increased learning of the second language [ 35 ]. Prior medical education literature has examined language training effectiveness and found subjective benefit to language acquisition, and also improved patient perceptions about cultural competence that are related to provider perception of language skill [ 16 , 19 ].

One prior study implemented a week Spanish training course for in-practice providers in a paediatric emergency department. They utilized three SP encounters to evaluate history-taking skill before and after the course. This intervention similarly identified improved patient perception of concern, comfort, respect and listening [ 36 ].

However, a language course that is integrated with simulation-based training techniques, including debriefing to assist with language acquisition, has not been previously described in the literature. Compared to historical controls, EM residents found the simulation-based Spanish course to be more effective than the previously used didactic only curriculum.

Adding in language training as a component of simulation was viewed favourably by the majority of surveyed EM residents. This simulation design also focused on teamwork activities in the delivery of care and allowed learners to work with one another to learn words and phrases during the simulation.

Only 6 learners in Group 2 reported that they wanted more solo learning compared to 26 learners who requested more group training. Although a high percentage of residents had a self-perceived proficiency, prior studies have warned that language training is not meant to be a replacement for medical interpreters, hence a discussion about how to approach unknown or uncomfortable language and how to incorporate the use of interpreters was also included during the simulation sessions [ 20 ].

Future studies should examine with objective testing, patient satisfaction and provider language abilities before and after participation in a simulation-based Spanish language course. Overall, the study findings suggest that simulation-based Spanish training was seen as more effective than traditional didactic instruction and led to increased perceived proficiency across all levels of Spanish-speaking ability.

The researchers would like to thank Connie Gyenis for her assistance over the past 5 years in delivering the Spanish language simulation cases, and the health care simulation technology specialists who allowed for delivery of high-quality simulation cases without technical glitches.

This educational activity would not have been possible without the dedicated work of the health care simulation technology specialists at the Training and Educational Center for Healthcare Simulation TECHS.

All authors assisted in the initial writing, literature review and final editing of the manuscript including background literature research and evaluation. SC and RW assisted in the delivery, and debriefing of the simulation sessions.

SM performed the data collection management and analysis. All authors wrote, read and approved the final manuscript. All funding for the study activity was through the Department of Emergency Medicine at TTUHSC El Paso. Data analysed are available upon request from the corresponding author.

Case content used for the simulation can also be requested for review. CC: ¿Por qué usted vino al hospital hoy? Associated: ¿Tiene otros síntomas que vienen al mismo tiempo?

Timing: ¿Viene o va? Does it come and go? Or is it constant? Treatments: ¿Trato con un medicamento ya? Severity:¿En un escala de uno a dies, como esta su dolor? Setting: ¿Que estaba haciendo cuando comenzó? Do you have any medical problems like diabtes or high blood pressure? PSH : ¿Ha tenido una cirugía?

Allergies : ¿Tiene alergia a alguna medicina? SH : ¿Usted está trabajando? Voy a hacer un examen físico. Siga mi dedo sin mover su cabeza. Respira profundo y lentamente por la boca. Dígame si le duele cuando pongo presión — Tell me if you have pain when I press.

Parece que usted necesita análisis de sangre. Me voy a darle medicamento para el dolor. Background Communication is the target of many simulation activities [ 1 ].

Methods This descriptive study employed convenience sampling for two groups of participants. Table Outline of the 25 total simulation cases presented during each of the five half-days.

The cases are in groups of five by common chief complaint. Simulation case topics Chest pain Non-specific chest pain ST-elevation myocardial infarction Herpes zoster Shingles Gastroesophageal reflux GERD Aortic dissection Shortness of breath Pneumothorax Pneumonia Congestive heart failure Pulmonary embolism Asthma Headache Migraine Post-lumbar puncture headache Subdural haemorrhage Subarachnoid haemorrhage Meningitis Abdominal pain Abdominal aortic aneurysm Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Small bowel obstruction Appendicitis Pelvic pain gynaecologic Ovarian torsion Ectopic pregnancy Pyelonephritis Pelvic inflammatory disease PID Fibroids.

Results Prior to analysis, all study variables were examined for accuracy of data input using univariate descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics on prior Spanish language exposure for Group 2. Descriptive statistics on post Spanish language simulation training for Group 2.

Discussion This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of an integrated Spanish simulation training programme to a historical control group that received traditional didactic Spanish language training during their first month of an EM residency on the US—Mexico border.

Conclusions Overall, the study findings suggest that simulation-based Spanish training was seen as more effective than traditional didactic instruction and led to increased perceived proficiency across all levels of Spanish-speaking ability. Key Points Language barriers in health care are a concern that can be targeted with simulation training.

Language training in context is important for learning. Language training with simulated patient-based scenarios are viewed favourably by learners. Acknowledgements The researchers would like to thank Connie Gyenis for her assistance over the past 5 years in delivering the Spanish language simulation cases, and the health care simulation technology specialists who allowed for delivery of high-quality simulation cases without technical glitches.

Funding All funding for the study activity was through the Department of Emergency Medicine at TTUHSC El Paso. Availability of data and materials Data analysed are available upon request from the corresponding author.

Ethics approval This study was reviewed as exempt by the TTUHSC El Paso IRB E Consent for publication Not applicable. References 1. Weller J , Boyd M , Cumin D. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate Medical Journal.

Siminoff LA , Rogers HL , Waller AC , Harris-Haywood S , Esptein RM , Carrio FB , Gliva-McConvey G , Longo DR. The advantages and challenges of unannounced standardized patient methodology to assess healthcare communication. Patient Education and Counseling.

Blake T , Blake T. Improving therapeutic communication in nursing through simulation exercise. Teaching and Learning in Nursing. Dillon G , Boulet J , Hawkins R , Swanson D. Downar J , McNaughton N , Abdelhalim T , Wong N , Lapointe-Shaw L , Seccareccia D , Miller K , Dev S , Ridley J , Lee C , Richardson L , McDonald-Blumer H , Knickle K.

International Journal of Healthcare Simulation

As we can see, games can be used at any moment of the lesson and with different learning purposes. However, due to the usefulness of games and their versatility, it is essential that FL teachers integrate them into the FL programming. On the contrary, games must be carefully planned and have clear objectives and outcomes.

The integration of games into the FL syllabus enhances the role of games as valuable backup to additional materials and resources i. we can play a game to add some practise to an activity in the coursebook; to practise vocabulary related to another activity, such as a song; or simply to elicit vocabulary items as a preparation activity before a storytelling.

Up to certain extent, the way we select , organize and manage games are weighty factors for their success. Therefore, we shall now consider how to deal with games selection. See in this light, we shall consider:.

Language level : In Lewis and Bedson view, determining a learner´s level is an inexact science, particularly with young ages; since the traditional terms beginner, intermediate and advanced suggest a linear progression which is not really applicable to primary school ages, as it is difficult to filter out the linguistic components from children´s development.

As an example, with very young children games should contain simple language and basic procedures, easy to understand through demonstrations.

In this line, it has to be noted that sometimes the challenge of the game is not only to be seen in the language used, but also in the cognitive procedure involved in it i. in a treasure hunt, apart from the linguistic demands, students have to put into practice other skills related to digital competence, learning to learn, etc.

Grouping : The way in which we organize games may vary in different ways. When we plan a game, we have to establish if the game is going to be played in pairs, in groups, or with the whole class playing against the teacher or one leader.

This factor may help the teacher decide whether a game is suitable. On the other hand, the organizational pattern of the game is itself controlled by the rules of the game.

Obviously, the role of the children is not the same for all games; a game played in pairs shall involve more oral interaction on the part of learners than a teacher-led game.

Each game has its own characteristic range of language activity. Besides, it is essential to consider the way in which groups shall be formed. If the game involves oral interaction, we may decide to organize children in homogeneous groups, so that they all will be engaged in communication at different levels.

On the other hand, other times heterogeneous grouping is more advisable for students to help each other peer´s tutorials. One way of coping with heterogeneous groups and ensuring that all students will be involved consists of assigning different roles within the group.

Each game involves using different materials; therefore, the FL teacher must ensure that these materials are available or easy to achieve; easy to store and reusable. Nature of the game : As we shall see in the next point, games can be competitive or cooperative.

In competitive games our pupils strive for being the first to reach the goal. On the other hand, in cooperative games pupils collaborate towards a common goal. Notwithstanding, many times the distinction between collaboration and competition relies on how we approach the procedure of the game.

In other words, nearly any game can be presented as a competition or collaboration, depending on how learners participate in it. Similarly, bearing in mind that these principles cooperation-competition are at the heart of many games; sometimes a coursebook language activity can be turned into a game by introducing an element of competition in order to stimulate effort.

However, it is important that children understand the linguistic value of FL games and perceive them as a different type of work.

In this sense, it is interesting to make the reasons for playing games explicit in an understandable way i. Another way to make children aware of the linguistic relevance of games is through reflection and evaluation of a game.

The implementation of games for FLT requires considering some tips or golden rules :. We know that children tend to prefer familiar games; notwithstanding, it is advisable to vary our repertoire of games. In fact, overdoing the same game may result counterproductive from a creative point of view.

In this same line, despite the fact that certain routine is useful since learners know what comes next in the learning sequence, too much predictability may spoil the surprise factor, which is a motivating ally when students seem to have lost interest. On the other hand, experienced FL teachers know that games must not be played for too long , because lengthy games are very likely to end up as a boring or mechanical activity.

It is difficult to know the right moment to finish a game, because even amongst children of the same age, the attention span is different. As a rule, the younger students are, the shorter their attention span will be.

As Lewis and Bedson point out: always end an activity when the fun is still at its peak. Another relevant consideration is that the organization of the game should be carefully planned , in a way that there is not improvisation, particularly with younger learners.

If we mix up the rules of the game or the norms are not clear enough, the game can turn into a confusing activity. Besides, we need to ensure that all the materials required for the game are available and ready to use.

Finally, the organization of the game entails thinking how the classroom space is going to be arranged. As we know, different games suppose different classroom layouts i. Participation must be extended to all the children in the class.

This implies that we must cope with students with specific needs of educational support. Even in competitive games, all children must be occupied so that they do not disrupt. In addition, we must bear in mind that students learn in different ways learning styles and they also may present strengths or weaknesses in relation to their prevailing intelligences Gardner ´s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are seven main areas in which all people have special skills.

Therefore, to cater for all strengths in the class, we must design a varied proposal of games, being some of them more based on linguistic capabilities, whist others may be more demanding from a kinaesthetic, auditory, creative, cooperative points of view.

Apart from this weighty reason, communicative activities in the form of games are useful to practise new language in real-life situations and apply what has already been learnt review. It should also be noted that communicative games enhance socio-cultural aspects of the language. In this sense, the authenticity of the language and situations provided by communicative games are excellent factors to enhance real use of the FL.

Communicative games are by definition creative activities that entail a purpose to foster negotiation of meaning. They are usually based on the information gap principle, which acts as a purpose and provide learners with chances and authentic contexts where they feel the need to use real-life language to communicate with others meaningfully and purposefully.

In addition, as opposed to traditional techniques, in communicative games the teacher encourages communication instead of focusing on continuous error correction. In this positive and relaxed atmosphere created by the game, students are not deterred to use the language by public correction and will feel secure and confident to take the risk with the FL.

At the same time, the player is seeing the objects of vocabulary during learning. This allows for the association of words with pictures. Such associations make language learning easier. Early language learning is done using associations between pictures and words. As a building block of language learning, vocabulary is easily acquired using visuals.

Pictures allow the child to establish the word in a sentence in the context of the picture seen. Video games can do the same thing when learning a new language. An essential component of language learning, pronunciation should be a focus when improving language skills.

This is a habit that can be broken with regular pronunciation reinforcement. A learner should compare how letters and phonics are pronounced in the home language to the foreign language.

A conscious decision to move away from the familiar pronunciation to a different approach is the first step in improving pronunciation.

The subtitles in a video game are a translation back into the home language of what is being said in the foreign language. At the beginning of the language learning process, this is helpful. The translations aid in acquiring vocabulary. For foreign language learning, the word in context with a visual and a translation into the home language are important.

Using this technique is helpful at first. Further on in the language learning process, it may present a hindrance.

The reason for this is simple. Referring to the subtitles in the home language allows the learner to keep thinking in the home language. A key skill in foreign language acquisition is being able to depart from thinking in the home language. Learning to think in the foreign language means the speaker is not constantly translating into the home language.

A lot of video games are interactive. Players engage with one another. Hearing and speaking a language frequently is another building block of foreign language acquisition. Engaging with other gamers is a great way to practice language skills thus far acquired.

Finding friends who will correct pronunciation and grammar is ideal. The home language was learnt as a child through hearing the language every day. In the same way, a foreign language can be learnt through large amounts of interaction with other speakers.

The best way to learn the nuances of a language is to communicate with native speakers. Online gambling activities are defined as those games that are played with electronic, computerised, telematic and interactive means and those in which personal attendance is of an accessory nature.

The latter plus the software used are understood to be part of the gambling platform and hence subject to the same gaming regulations on approval and certification. Licences for the offering of online gambling are intended only for Spanish or overseas-based operators — only EEA entities — that target only Spanish or Spanish-resident consumers.

State-wide online gambling is restricted to the regulated gambling verticals, previously licensed and to be offered according to the technical homologations granted, if breached sanctions are applicable — e.

Currently, online gaming operators are allowed to operate terminals in gaming venues, subject to regional regulation. To date, only Castilla y León Region has explicitly regulated this type of gaming. In Spain, the general rule is that liability for gambling infringements corresponds to those who operate these activities.

Only in very exceptional cases are third parties liable, such as athletes, coaches or other direct participants, referees performing or acting in the event or sport activity on which they place their bets, as well as the people who resolved appeals against the decisions of those referees.

Audio-visual or electronic communications service providers, mass media, advertising agencies and advertising networks will be responsible for the promotion, sponsorship and advertising of gambling when organisers do not have the necessary authorisation to legally advertise those games.

In terms of gambling advertisements, whoever facilitates a gambling advertisement i. Please see question 2. The most serious may lead to revocation of the licence. Nevertheless, any restrictive measures such as gambling monopolies or licensing systems that any given MS may impose in its gambling legislation may constitute restrictions to the freedom to provide services in the internal market of the EU article 56 of the TFEU and must satisfy the conditions laid down in relevant case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union about their proportionality, suitability and coherence with regard to achieving the policy objectives of the MS.

While legal gambling contracts are valid and amounts won can be claimed, the amounts won through illegal gambling operated without the relevant authorisations cannot be claimed before any court.

Have fines, licence revocations or other sanctions been enforced in your jurisdiction? In pursuit of illegal gambling, the DGOJ tries to ensure unlicensed online gambling in Spain is suppressed mainly by maintaining a register of gambling websites that allow connections from within Spain and verification procedures on websites subject to a complaint, report, claim or ex officio investigation by the DGOJ.

The website register seeks to identify the unauthorised gambling offer, its scope and positioning in the market. Once a website has been registered, it is regularly monitored in order to verify its activity in Spain and, where appropriate, the initiation of a preliminary information file.

The preliminary information procedures are started when a website is subject to a report, complaint or claim. From that moment on, a procedure begins in which, through the check phases, the DGOJ communicates with the operator, initiates the recording of evidence and, finally, proposes opening the sanctioning procedure.

Sanctioning proceedings have grown in terms of amount and quantity of fines over the last few years. Since , the DGOJ has published a list of sanctioned companies on its webpage. It is expected to be passed during Q1—Q2 of At the time of writing, it is not clear when this resolution will be passed.

In July , the Administrative Chamber of the Spanish Supreme Court raised a question of unconstitutionality before the Constitutional Court regarding article 7 paragraph 2 of the Gaming Law, as this article allows a regulation lower than the law i.

Likewise, article 7 paragraph 2 of the Gaming Law should be eliminated from the legal system for being unconstitutional. The DGOJ published in January a draft resolution to regulate i the requirements that must be met by the collaborating entities in the commercialisation of lottery games, when through electronic, computer, telematic or interactive channels, and ii the obligations of lottery operators related to marketing through these collaborating entities and the webpages, applications or other electronic, computer, telematic or interactive channels owned or operated by the external marketing network.

Patricia Lalanda Ordóñez LOYRA Abogados. Fernando A. Martín Martín LOYRA Abogados. LOYRA Abogados. Chapter Content Free Access 1. Relevant Authorities and Legislation 2. Application for a Licence and Licence Restrictions 3. Enforcement and Liability 5. Anticipated Reforms.

Relevant Product Who regulates it in digital form? Who regulates it in land-based form? The relevant authority within the competent Autonomous Region, of which there are Poker Bingo Betting Betting DGOJ. Not regulated yet.

Lotteries Lotteries The Spanish State. Only in Catalunya. The relevant authority within the competent Autonomous Region. Skill games and competitions with no element of chance Not regulated. Land-based gambling Casinos: Each Region has established a licensing regime to install and operate casinos.

Usually, whenever a certain Region intends to grant a licence for a new casino, it must call and conduct a public tender, where applicants submit their proposal, which must comply with the requirements of the tender in terms of investment size, technical and financial suitability, location, potential for employment creation, guarantees, feasibility study, etc.

The licence is granted to the applicant who attains the best score according to a scale provided in the tender. Typically, the total number of casinos that can be authorised within a concrete Region, as well as the number of casinos that can be operated by the same operator and its group of companies , are limited.

Spanish language skills development with gambling

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Spanish language skills development with gambling -

Although a high percentage of residents had a self-perceived proficiency, prior studies have warned that language training is not meant to be a replacement for medical interpreters, hence a discussion about how to approach unknown or uncomfortable language and how to incorporate the use of interpreters was also included during the simulation sessions [ 20 ].

Future studies should examine with objective testing, patient satisfaction and provider language abilities before and after participation in a simulation-based Spanish language course.

Overall, the study findings suggest that simulation-based Spanish training was seen as more effective than traditional didactic instruction and led to increased perceived proficiency across all levels of Spanish-speaking ability.

The researchers would like to thank Connie Gyenis for her assistance over the past 5 years in delivering the Spanish language simulation cases, and the health care simulation technology specialists who allowed for delivery of high-quality simulation cases without technical glitches.

This educational activity would not have been possible without the dedicated work of the health care simulation technology specialists at the Training and Educational Center for Healthcare Simulation TECHS.

All authors assisted in the initial writing, literature review and final editing of the manuscript including background literature research and evaluation. SC and RW assisted in the delivery, and debriefing of the simulation sessions.

SM performed the data collection management and analysis. All authors wrote, read and approved the final manuscript. All funding for the study activity was through the Department of Emergency Medicine at TTUHSC El Paso.

Data analysed are available upon request from the corresponding author. Case content used for the simulation can also be requested for review. CC: ¿Por qué usted vino al hospital hoy?

Associated: ¿Tiene otros síntomas que vienen al mismo tiempo? Timing: ¿Viene o va? Does it come and go?

Or is it constant? Treatments: ¿Trato con un medicamento ya? Severity:¿En un escala de uno a dies, como esta su dolor? Setting: ¿Que estaba haciendo cuando comenzó? Do you have any medical problems like diabtes or high blood pressure?

PSH : ¿Ha tenido una cirugía? Allergies : ¿Tiene alergia a alguna medicina? SH : ¿Usted está trabajando? Voy a hacer un examen físico. Siga mi dedo sin mover su cabeza.

Respira profundo y lentamente por la boca. Dígame si le duele cuando pongo presión — Tell me if you have pain when I press. Parece que usted necesita análisis de sangre. Me voy a darle medicamento para el dolor. Background Communication is the target of many simulation activities [ 1 ].

Methods This descriptive study employed convenience sampling for two groups of participants. Table Outline of the 25 total simulation cases presented during each of the five half-days.

The cases are in groups of five by common chief complaint. Simulation case topics Chest pain Non-specific chest pain ST-elevation myocardial infarction Herpes zoster Shingles Gastroesophageal reflux GERD Aortic dissection Shortness of breath Pneumothorax Pneumonia Congestive heart failure Pulmonary embolism Asthma Headache Migraine Post-lumbar puncture headache Subdural haemorrhage Subarachnoid haemorrhage Meningitis Abdominal pain Abdominal aortic aneurysm Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Small bowel obstruction Appendicitis Pelvic pain gynaecologic Ovarian torsion Ectopic pregnancy Pyelonephritis Pelvic inflammatory disease PID Fibroids.

Results Prior to analysis, all study variables were examined for accuracy of data input using univariate descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics on prior Spanish language exposure for Group 2.

Descriptive statistics on post Spanish language simulation training for Group 2. Discussion This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of an integrated Spanish simulation training programme to a historical control group that received traditional didactic Spanish language training during their first month of an EM residency on the US—Mexico border.

Conclusions Overall, the study findings suggest that simulation-based Spanish training was seen as more effective than traditional didactic instruction and led to increased perceived proficiency across all levels of Spanish-speaking ability. Key Points Language barriers in health care are a concern that can be targeted with simulation training.

Language training in context is important for learning. Language training with simulated patient-based scenarios are viewed favourably by learners. Acknowledgements The researchers would like to thank Connie Gyenis for her assistance over the past 5 years in delivering the Spanish language simulation cases, and the health care simulation technology specialists who allowed for delivery of high-quality simulation cases without technical glitches.

Funding All funding for the study activity was through the Department of Emergency Medicine at TTUHSC El Paso. Availability of data and materials Data analysed are available upon request from the corresponding author. Ethics approval This study was reviewed as exempt by the TTUHSC El Paso IRB E Consent for publication Not applicable.

References 1. Weller J , Boyd M , Cumin D. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare.

Postgraduate Medical Journal. Siminoff LA , Rogers HL , Waller AC , Harris-Haywood S , Esptein RM , Carrio FB , Gliva-McConvey G , Longo DR. The advantages and challenges of unannounced standardized patient methodology to assess healthcare communication.

Patient Education and Counseling. Blake T , Blake T. Improving therapeutic communication in nursing through simulation exercise. Teaching and Learning in Nursing. Dillon G , Boulet J , Hawkins R , Swanson D. Downar J , McNaughton N , Abdelhalim T , Wong N , Lapointe-Shaw L , Seccareccia D , Miller K , Dev S , Ridley J , Lee C , Richardson L , McDonald-Blumer H , Knickle K.

Palliative Medicine. Nair L , Adetayo OA. Cultural competence and ethnic diversity in healthcare. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open. Meuter RF , Gallois C , Segalowitz NS , Ryder AG , Hocking J. Overcoming language barriers in healthcare: a protocol for investigating safe and effective communication when patients or clinicians use a second language.

BMC Health Services Research. Timmins CL. The impact of language barriers on the health care of Latinos in the United States: a review of the literature and guidelines for practice. Wilson CC. Patient safety and healthcare quality: the case for language access.

International Journal of Health Policy and Management. Blumczynski P , Wilson S. The languages of COVID translational and multilingual perspectives on global healthcare. Elmore B. The price of title 42 is the battered bodies of my patients.

The Atlantic. Squires A. Strategies for overcoming language barriers in healthcare. Nursing Management. This could well be the future of language learning — and education as a whole. All elements of the game have been crafted by linguists, language teachers and game developers to transform both games and education with a new approach to learner motivation.

These children comprised a single class of year 5 schoolchildren from a London Primary School. The class had a weekly basic Spanish language class. Parental consent was obtained from the parents of all the children who participated.

Half of the children were randomly assigned to the experimental group — which comprised of 15 children being invited to play the Ruby Rei game. This resource was matched in terms of level of Spanish the children were being taught within their current curriculum.

Each group was observed for a week in terms of their voluntary interaction and progress with each resource. The test was co-designed by Wibbu and Cambridge English Language Assessment in terms of age appropriateness and curriculum relevancy. Each child was measured in terms of the increase or decrease in their scores on the test at the end of the study compared to their scores at the start of the study.

Wibbu is an educational video-game studio based in London, UK. It was founded in with the goal of modernising foreign-language learning. We know that children tend to prefer familiar games; notwithstanding, it is advisable to vary our repertoire of games.

In fact, overdoing the same game may result counterproductive from a creative point of view. In this same line, despite the fact that certain routine is useful since learners know what comes next in the learning sequence, too much predictability may spoil the surprise factor, which is a motivating ally when students seem to have lost interest.

On the other hand, experienced FL teachers know that games must not be played for too long , because lengthy games are very likely to end up as a boring or mechanical activity. It is difficult to know the right moment to finish a game, because even amongst children of the same age, the attention span is different.

As a rule, the younger students are, the shorter their attention span will be. As Lewis and Bedson point out: always end an activity when the fun is still at its peak. Another relevant consideration is that the organization of the game should be carefully planned , in a way that there is not improvisation, particularly with younger learners.

If we mix up the rules of the game or the norms are not clear enough, the game can turn into a confusing activity. Besides, we need to ensure that all the materials required for the game are available and ready to use.

Finally, the organization of the game entails thinking how the classroom space is going to be arranged. As we know, different games suppose different classroom layouts i. Participation must be extended to all the children in the class.

This implies that we must cope with students with specific needs of educational support. Even in competitive games, all children must be occupied so that they do not disrupt.

In addition, we must bear in mind that students learn in different ways learning styles and they also may present strengths or weaknesses in relation to their prevailing intelligences Gardner ´s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are seven main areas in which all people have special skills.

Therefore, to cater for all strengths in the class, we must design a varied proposal of games, being some of them more based on linguistic capabilities, whist others may be more demanding from a kinaesthetic, auditory, creative, cooperative points of view.

Apart from this weighty reason, communicative activities in the form of games are useful to practise new language in real-life situations and apply what has already been learnt review. It should also be noted that communicative games enhance socio-cultural aspects of the language.

In this sense, the authenticity of the language and situations provided by communicative games are excellent factors to enhance real use of the FL.

Communicative games are by definition creative activities that entail a purpose to foster negotiation of meaning. They are usually based on the information gap principle, which acts as a purpose and provide learners with chances and authentic contexts where they feel the need to use real-life language to communicate with others meaningfully and purposefully.

In addition, as opposed to traditional techniques, in communicative games the teacher encourages communication instead of focusing on continuous error correction. In this positive and relaxed atmosphere created by the game, students are not deterred to use the language by public correction and will feel secure and confident to take the risk with the FL.

According to Hadfield , communicative games are activities with a goal or aim that is not linguistic or not entirely linguistic. Successful completion of the game will involve the carrying out of a task such as drawing in a route of a map, filling in a chart, or finding two matching pictures, rather than the correct production of a structure.

Thus, the emphasis in communicative games is on fluency rather than on accuracy of the language. However, communicative games require grading the type of language that students will use and a progression from controlled to less guided practice.

The techniques for communicative games include: information gap, guessing, matching, exchanging, role-plays and the like. The simple procedure of the game hides essential principles for the development of communicative competence. Apart from the fun element and the basic materials for the game cardboard hats and flashcards , this game takes what may seem a mere practice of familiar vocabulary to real communication with the use of limited language, i.

what colour is it? Where does it live? Is it an animal? Similarly, the game can be graded to different levels and students with specific needs of educational support may be given clues to make questions. However, the most relevant aspect of this game is that it is an example on how we can create a need to communicate and engage students in understanding others and getting their meaning across by devising a joyful communicative purpose.

There are plenty of basic communicative games to promote real communication from the early stages of learning. In pairs or small groups, each child or group has a set of characters with their names underneath the same for each team and secretly choose one of them.

Then, in turns they have to make questions to guess the character selected by the other child or group. The winner is the one that guesses the character first. On the other hand, creating appropriate situations for communication to take place is essential to develop our students´ communicative abilities.

In this sense, through simulations and role-plays we may increase enormously the scope of communicative situations in the FL class. As Littlewood suggests, with these techniques, students are demanded to imagine themselves in situations which could occur outside the classroom, from the simplest situation of meeting a friend in a shop to more complex contexts.

They must adopt a role in those specific situations and behave as if the situation really existed. Obviously, at early stages of learning, the communicative situations devised should be simple and the teacher should provide enough support to guide their dialogues through non-verbal language, cues, prompting the language, etc.

As students advance in their communicative abilities, role-playing turns less controlled and some creative answers and spontaneous use of the FL appears. Classroom market is an example of role-play in which the classroom is transformed into set of stalls and students interact assuming the roles of customers and shop keepers.

In this game, children ask for and give things, say prices and use polite conventions. The materials required are: realia i.

plastic fruits and vegetables, paper money, etc. Once children have been assigned their roles customers or shopkeepers , the pre-activity consists of making a shopping list customers and deciding the prices for each object shopkeepers. Next, students and teachers review the type of language we want them to use i.

formal greetings, polite requests, etc. Then, customers in pairs have to do the shopping in a time limit. Finally, customers report to the rest of the class the things they have bought and how much money they have left; and shopkeepers can tell other children how much money they earned. More advanced learners can add comments related to the prices, the quality of the products, etc.

Obviously, role-plays are games that require careful management and organization; and the division of the game into three stages pre, while and post.

Learning a foreign language is interesting Spxnish fun. Mixing it with a relaxing Bienestar financiero y salud mental en el juego like playing video games makes fevelopment an interactive, unique Spanisy. Many experts say spending Póker progresivo gratis much time playing video games is bad. No one would disagree with this hypothesis for gamers who spend hours at a time playing and cannot be torn away from the screen. There are some benefits for people with healthy gaming habits including improving foreign language skills. Here are some ways gaming will improve foreign language skills:.

Author: Kigamuro

3 thoughts on “Spanish language skills development with gambling

  1. Ich tue Abbitte, dass sich eingemischt hat... Ich hier vor kurzem. Aber mir ist dieses Thema sehr nah. Ich kann mit der Antwort helfen.

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